Expression of leukemia inhibitory factor and interleukin-11 by human melanoma cell lines: LIF, IL-6, and IL-11 are not coregulated

D Paglia, A Oran, C Lu, R S Kerbel, D N Sauder, R C McKenzie
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research 1995, 15 (5): 455-60
Dysregulation in cytokines has been associated with melanomas. For example, loss of growth inhibition in advanced melanomas has been associated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression. Because IL-6 belongs to the hematopoietic cytokine family, which includes leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin-11 (IL-11), we examined the possibility of coordinate expression of LIF, IL-6, and IL-11 in three human melanoma cell lines derived from primary lesions (early) and in four lines derived from metastatic tumors (advanced). All lines examined produced at least low levels of LIF and IL-11 mRNA as measured by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), two of three early and three of four advanced lines were found to secrete LIF protein. IL-11 was assayed using growth of the responsive B9/11 cell line, but only one of seven lines made a low but measurable amount of IL-11. Cytokine protein production was not strictly correlated with mRNA abundance, nor was it strongly correlated with tumor staging. Recombinant LIF and IL-11 protein had no effect on the proliferation of any of the seven lines, suggesting that they do not act as autocrine growth factors for these melanomas. Assay of IL-6, IL-11, and LIF protein in conditioned medium from early and advanced melanoma lines gave no evidence of coordinate expression of these cytokines. We conclude that LIF and IL-11 production by melanomas may have some paracrine or endocrine function in the course of melanoma progression.

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