RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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Treatment of Omenn syndrome by bone marrow transplantation.

We report the outcome of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in nine consecutive patients with Omenn syndrome treated between 1980 and 1989. Five patients received unmanipulated marrow from a related matched donor, and four received T cell-depleted marrow from a haploidentical donor. The patients were conditioned with cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) and, except in one case, busulfan (16 mg/kg). Antithymocyte globulin and etoposide were given to three patients each; three recipients of T cell-depleted haploidentical marrow also received intravenous injections of an anti-leukocyte function-associated antigen type 1 antibody as graft rejection prophylaxis. All the patients were fed parenterally for 1 to 5 months before BMT to improve nutritional status and received topical corticosteroids (n = 8), systemic steroids (n = 2), etoposide (n = 1), or cyclosporine (n = 1) to control T-cell activation. Engraftment occurred in four of five recipients of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical marrow and three of four recipients of HLA-haploidentical marrow. One patient died with cytomegalovirus infection. The other six patients are alive 4 to 11 years after BMT, with full chimerism in all but one case. Chronic graft-versus-host disease persists in one patient; the other five survivors have fully restored immune function and have no manifestations of Omenn syndrome, including failure to thrive. We conclude that both HLA-identical and haploidentical BMT can cure Omenn syndrome, provided that parenteral nutrition and immunosuppressive therapy are given before transplantation.

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