Interleukin-10 enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expression in a chronically infected promonocytic cell line (U1) by a tumor necrosis factor alpha-independent mechanism

J B Angel, B M Saget, M Z Wang, A Wang, C A Dinarello, P R Skolnik
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research 1995, 15 (6): 575-84
TNF-alpha enhances HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cells and likely contributes to the wasting associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Agents that inhibit TNF-alpha activity should theoretically delay the progression of disease, and several are currently in clinical trials. We hypothesized that IL-10, a cytokine that suppresses the gene expression and synthesis of TNF-alpha in monocytic cells, might inhibit HIV-1 replication. As expected, IL-10 suppressed PMA-induced TNF-alpha production in U1 cells; however, when U1 cells were cultured in the presence of PMA and increasing doses of IL-10, a dose-dependent increase in HIV-1 expression was observed. IL-10 also enhanced IL-1 beta-, TNF-alpha-, and GM-CSF-induced HIV-1 expression in U1 cells, and this occurred, at least in part, at the level of transcription. We next stimulated cells under conditions of TNF-alpha blockade. When PMA-induced TNF-alpha activity and HIV-1 replication were blocked by the presence of soluble TNF receptors, IL-10 independently enhanced HIV-1 replication. In contrast, other agents that are capable of blocking TNF-alpha synthesis or TNF-alpha activity either had no effect (IL-13 and IL-4) or inhibited HIV-1 expression (soluble TNF receptors and pentoxifylline) in U1 cells. These data suggest that IL-10, while inhibiting TNF-alpha synthesis, has an independent mechanism of action that enhances HIV-1 replication. Therefore, IL-10 may have undesirable effects in HIV-1-infected patients.


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Available on the App Store

Available on the Play Store
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"