Two dimensional echocardiography in congenital heart disease

M N Kotler, G S Mintz, W R Parry, B L Segal
American Journal of Cardiology 1980 December 18, 46 (7): 1237-46
Two dimensional echocardiography has enhanced the ability of the clinician to define accurately intracardiac anatomy and great vessel relations. By visualizing relations of the great arteries and determining ventricular situs in the parasternal short axis planes and by assessing the relation of the great arteries to ventricles atrioventricular (A-V) valves and the interventricular septum in the parasternal and apical long axis view, complex congenital heart disorders can readily be differentiated. The subcostal approach allows accurate identification and localization of interatrial and interventricular septal defects. Utilizing the apical parasternal four chambered or subcostal four chambered view, complex malformations of the A-V valves such as complete endocardial cushion defect and Ebstein's anomaly can readily be appreciated. The suprasternal approach has allowed direct visualization of a coarcted aortic segment. The differentiation of left and right ventricular outflow obstruction is also possible. In some patients, it is possible to achieve an accurate diagnosis with two dimensional echocardiography alone. In others, two dimensional echocardiography provides accurate and detailed information with regard to spatial anatomy and valve morphology so that invasive studies can be performed more expeditiously, with less contrast agent and hence with greater safety. With regard to future developments, better resolution capability with newer instrumentation and combined two dimensional echocardiography with Doppler blood flowmeter studies may provide even greater diagnostic accuracy in the evaluation of patients with congenital heart disorders.

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