What are hemorrhoids and what is their relationship to the portal venous system?

W C Bernstein
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum 1983, 26 (12): 829-34
New concepts of the pathophysiology of hemorrhoids have been defined during the past eight or more years, yet medical education at the undergraduate and graduate levels has not kept pace with the newer concepts. The traditional concepts are being perpetuated in all medical dictionaries and in most textbooks of surgery, medicine, anatomy, and pathology. Hemorrhoids are not varicosities, but rather are vascular cushions composed of arterioles, venules, and arteriolar-venular communications which slide down, become congested and enlarged, and bleed. The pathogenesis begins in the fibromuscular supporting layer in the submucosa, above the vascular cushions. The bright red bleeding, which accompanies hemorrhoidal disease, is arteriolar in origin. Portal hypertension has been shown not to be the cause of hemorrhoids. The use of rubber bands, sclerosing solutions, cryosurgery, or the infra-red beam in the early stages of hemorrhoidal disease can take care of prolapse and bleeding and can prevent the development of third and fourth degree hemorrhoids.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.