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Anaerobes in infections of the head and neck and ear, nose, and throat.

Anaerobic bacteria outnumber aerobes at most oropharyngeal sites, with counts up to 10(11)/ml of fluid, and have been implicated in infections of all structures of the head and neck. They are common in chronic otitis media, chronic sinusitis, and various soft-tissue infections. These infections are initiated primarily by mucosal breaks. Bacterial factors such as adhesiveness and antileukocytic activity also may play a role. Among the complications of these infections are brain abscess, aspiration pneumonia, and anaerobic sepsis. Treatment includes surgical drainage and use of antimicrobial agents active against the mixed flora commonly found. Penicillin is currently the drug of choice, but this may change with the emergence of beta-lactamase-producing strains of anaerobes such as Bacteroides melaninogenicus.

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Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

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