Zero-cost modification of bright field microscopes for imaging phase gradient on cells: Schlieren optics

D Axelrod
Cell Biophysics 1981, 3 (2): 167-73
A simple, zero-cost, reversible modification of a bright field microscope permits visualization of phase gradients in cells by transmitted illumination, yielding a Nomarski-like effect. This modification, based on schlieren optics, is simultaneously compatible with high-aperture epi-illumination fluorescence excitation. For many objectives that are intended for use in fluorescence work, but are unavailable in phase contrast versions, the modification provides a simple means for locating cells in culture with good image contrast and resolution.

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