RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, P.H.S.
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Overproduction of uric acid in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. Contribution by impaired purine salvage.

The contribution of reduced purine salvage to the hyperuricemia associated with hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency was measured by the intravenous administration of tracer doses of [8-(14)C]adenine to nine patients with normal enzyme activity, three patients with a partial deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, and six patients with the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. The mean cumulative excretion of radioactivity 7 d after the adenine administration is 5.6+/-2.4, 12.9+/-0.9, and 22.3+/-4.7% of infused radioactivity for control subjects, partial hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient subjects, and Lesch-Nyhan patients, respectively. To assess relative rates of nucleotide degradation in control and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient patients two separate studies were employed. With [8-(14)C]inosine administration, three control subjects excreted 3.7-8.5% and two enzyme-deficient patients excreted 26.5-48.0% of the injected radioactivity in 18 h. The capacity of the nucleotide catabolic pathway to accelerate in response to d-fructose was evaluated in control and enzyme-deficient patients. The normal metabolic response to intravenous fructose is a 7.5+/-4.2-mmol/g creatinine increase in total urinary purines during the 3-h after the infusion. The partial hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient subjects and Lesch-Nyhan patients show increases of 18.6+/-10.8 and 17.3+/-11.8 mmol/g creatinine, respectively. Of the observed rise in purine exretion in control subjects, 40% occurs from inosine excretion and 32% occurs from oxypurine excretion. The rise in total purine excretion with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is almost entirely accounted for by an elevated uric acid excretion. Increases in urine radioactivity after fructose infusion are distributed in those purines that are excreted in elevated quantities.The observations suggest that purine salvage is a major contributor to increased purine excretion and that the purine catabolic pathway responds differently to an increased substrate load in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. The purine salvage pathway is normally an important mechanism for the reutilization of hypoxanthine in man.

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