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A Triboelectric-Electromagnetic Hybrid Generator for Harvesting River Energy and Wind Energy for River Ecosystem Monitoring.

Currently, monitoring the ecological conditions of watercourses is overly unitary and inefficient and is burdened by high costs. A cost-effective, efficient, self-powered sensor for incorporating the Internet of Things (IoT) into the surveillance of riverine ecosystems is lacking. This manuscript introduces a device designed for energy harvesting and sensing through a triboelectric-electromagnetic generator (CX-TEHG). The CX-TEHG is composed of a wind-driven electromagnetic generator (F-EMG), a river-driven electromagnetic generator (W-EMG), a triboelectric nanogenerator for measuring flow velocity (W-TENG), and another triboelectric nanogenerator for gauging the speed of floodwater level rise (F-TENG). It employs planetary gears to achieve a 6-fold increase in speed, facilitating efficient multienergy collection from wind and river currents. CX-TEHG achieves a peak power output of 183 mW and a power density of 373.5 W/m3 under environmental conditions featuring a wind speed of 4 m/s and a flow velocity of 0.5 m/s. This study developed a cost-efficient signal acquisition system and a mechanism for information transmission via a 5G module. Alerts are issued on both upper-level computers and mobile devices for river flow velocities exceeding 2.8 m/s and water levels reaching specified locations; thus, an innovative solution for applying the Internet of Things in riverine ecological monitoring is presented.

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