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Synthesis Pathway of Layered-Oxide Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries by Spray Pyrolysis.

We report the synthesis of LiCoO2 (LCO) cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries via aerosol spray pyrolysis, focusing on the effect of synthesis temperatures from 600 to 1000 °C on the materials' structural and morphological features. Utilizing both nitrate and acetate metal precursors, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of material properties through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Our findings reveal enhanced crystallinity and significant oxide decomposition within the examined temperature range. Morphologically, nitrate-derived particles exhibited hollow, spherical shapes, whereas acetate-derived particles were irregular. Guided by high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) data, the formation of a layered LCO oxide structure, with distinct spinel Li2 Co2 O4 and layered oxide LCO phases was shown to emerge at different annealing temperatures. Optimally annealed particles showcased well-defined layered structures, translating to high electrochemical performance. Specifically, nitrate-based particles annealed at 775 °C for 1 h demonstrated initial discharge capacities close to 179 mAh/g, while acetate-based particles, annealed at 750 °C for 3 h, achieved 136 mAh/g at a 0.1 C discharge rate. This study elucidates the influence of synthesis conditions on LCO cathode material properties, offering insights that advance high throughput processes for lithium-ion battery materials synthesis.

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