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Ionic Liquid-Based Silane for SiO 2 Nanoparticles: A Versatile Coupling Agent for Dental Resins.

The current longevity of dental resins intraorally is limited by susceptibility to acidic attacks from bacterial metabolic byproducts and vulnerability to enzymatic or hydrolytic degradation. Here, we demonstrate synthesizing an ionic liquid-based antibiofilm silane effective against Streptococcus mutans , a major caries pathogen. Furthermore, we incorporate this silane into dental resins, creating antibiofilm- and degradation-resistant materials applicable across resin types. FTIR, UV-vis, and NMR spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of the expected ionic liquid-based silane. The characterization of SiO2 after the silanization indicated the presence of the silane and how it interacted with the oxide. All groups achieved a degree of conversion similar to that found for commercial resin composites immediately and after two months of storage in water. The minimum of 2.5 wt % of silane led to lower softening in solvent than the control group (GCTRL ) ( p < 0.05). While the flexural strength indicated a lower value from 1 wt % of silane compared to GCTRL ( p < 0.05), the ultimate tensile strength did not indicate differences among groups ( p > 0.05). There was no difference within groups between the immediate and long-term tests of flexural strength ( p > 0.05) or ultimate tensile strength ( p > 0.05). The addition of at least 5 wt % of silane reduced the viability of S. mutans compared to GCTRL ( p < 0.05). The fluorescence microscopy analysis suggested that the higher the silane concentration, the higher the amount of bacteria with membrane defects. There was no difference among groups in the cytotoxicity test ( p > 0.05). Therefore, the developed dental resins displayed biocompatibility, proper degree of conversion, improved resistance against softening in solvent, and stability after 6 months of storage in water. This material could be further developed to produce polymeric antimicrobial layers for different surfaces, supporting various potential avenues in developing novel biomaterials with enhanced therapeutic characteristics using ionic liquid-based materials.

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