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Dietary factors and risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A two sample mendelian randomization study.

Correlations between dietary factors and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been found in previous observational studies. However, no further studies have used Mendelian randomization to further explore the causal relationship between dietary factors and ALS. Clarifying these relationships is a crucial part of developing nutritional recommendations for ALS prevention. The exposure and outcome datasets employed in this study were extracted from the IEU Open GWAS project (https://gwas.mrcieu.ac.uk/). The exposure datasets involved in our Mendelian analyses consisted of meat intake (processed meat intake, poultry intake, beef intake, pork intake, non-oily fish intake, and oily fish intake), staple foods intake (bread intake and cereal intake), vegetable intake (cooked vegetable intake, salad/raw vegetable intake), fruit intake (fresh fruit intake and dried fruit intake), and beverage intake (coffee intake and tea intake). The weighted median, MR-Egger, Inverse Variance Weighted, Simple mode and Weighted mode methods were all utilized. And we applied Inverse Variance Weighted method as the main judgement criterion for Mendelian randomization analysis. Heterogeneity and pleiotropy analyses were conducted to confirm the validity of the outcomes. Genetically predicted that oily fish intake (OR: 0.7648; 95% CI: 0.5905-0.9904; P = .0420), coffee intake (OR: 0.7385; 95% CI: 0.5660-0.9637; P = .0256), and fresh fruit intake (OR: 0.6165; 95% CI: 0.4007-0.9487; P = .0278) were causally associated with a decreased risk of ALS. Negative results (P > .05) were received for all other dietary factors. This study found that oily fish intake, coffee intake and fresh fruit intake reduced the risk of developing ALS. Additionally, other factors were not associated with ALS.

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