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Defining a vitamin A5/X specific deficiency - vitamin A5/X as a critical dietary factor for mental health.

A healthy and balanced diet is an important factor to assure a good functioning of the central and peripheral nervous system. Retinoid X receptor (RXR)-mediated signaling was identified as an important mechanism of transmitting major diet-dependent physiological and nutritional signaling such as the control of myelination and dopamine signalling. Recently, vitamin A5/X, mainly present in vegetables as provitamin A5/X, was identified as a new concept of a vitamin which functions as the nutritional precursor for enabling RXR-mediated signaling. The active form of vitamin A5/X, 9- cis -13,14-dehydroretinoic acid (9CDHRA), induces RXR-activation, thereby acting as the central switch for enabling various heterodimer-RXR-signaling cascades involving various partner heterodimers like the fatty acid and eicosanoid receptors/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), the cholesterol receptors/liver X receptors (LXRs), the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and the vitamin A(1) receptors/retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Thus, nutritional supply of vitamin A5/X might be a general nutritional-dependent switch for enabling this large cascade of hormonal signaling pathways and thus appears important to guarantee an overall organism homeostasis. RXR-mediated signaling was shown to be dependent on vitamin A5/X with direct effects for beneficial physiological and neuro-protective functions mediated systemically or directly in the brain. In summary, through control of dopamine signaling, amyloid β-clearance, neuro-protection and neuro-inflammation, the vitamin A5/X - RXR - RAR - vitamin A(1)-signaling might be "one of" or even "the" critical factor(s) necessary for good mental health, healthy brain aging, as well as for preventing drug addiction and prevention of a large array of nervous system diseases. Likewise, vitamin A5/X - RXR - non-RAR-dependent signaling relevant for myelination/re-myelination and phagocytosis/brain cleanup will contribute to such regulations too. In this review we discuss the basic scientific background, logical connections and nutritional/pharmacological expert recommendations for the nervous system especially considering the ageing brain.

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