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Metabolic determinants of leukemia onset variability in genetically homogeneous AKR mice.

Leukemia is a complex disease shaped by the intricate interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Given our preliminary data showing different leukemia incidence in genetically homogenous AKR mice harboring the spontaneous leukemia-inducing mutation Rmcfs, we sought to unravel the role of metabolites and gut microbiota in the leukemia penetrance. Our metabolomic analysis revealed distinct serum metabolite profiles between mice that developed leukemia and those that did not. We discovered that linoleic acid (LA), an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, was significantly decreased in the leukemia group, with the lower levels observed starting from 25 weeks before the onset. A predictive model based on LA levels demonstrated high accuracy in predicting leukemia development (area under curve 0.82). In vitro experiment confirmed LA's cytotoxic effects against leukemia cells, and in vivo study showed that a diet enriched with LA prolonged survival in AKR mice. Furthermore, gut microbiome analysis identified specific Lachnospiraceae species, that affect host lipid metabolism, are exclusively present in the leukemia group, suggesting their potential influence on LA metabolism and leukemia development. These findings shed light on the complex relationship between metabolites, gut microbiota, and leukemia development, providing valuable insights into the role of non-genetic factors in leukemia penetrance and potential strategies for leukemia prevention.

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