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Adaptive Signal Modulation Evolved by the Inherent Nonlinearity of Phase-Change Quantum-Dot String.

Nano Letters 2024 June 21
To simulate a topological neural network handling weak signals via stochastic resonance (SR), it is necessary to introduce an inherent nonlinearity into nanoscale devices. We use the self-assembly method to successfully fabricate a phase-change quantum-dot string (PCQDS) crossing Pd/Nb:AlNO/AlNO/Nb:AlNO/Pd multilayer. The inherent nonlinearity of phase change couples with electron tunneling so that PCQDS responds to a long signal sequence in a modulated output style, in which the pulse pattern evolves to that enveloped by two sets of periodic wave characterized by neural action potential. We establish an SR mode consisting of several two-state systems in which dissipative tunneling is coupled to environment. Size oscillations owing to NbO QDs adaptively adjust barriers and wells, such that tunneling can be periodically modulated by either asymmetric energy or local temperature. When the external periodic signals are applied, the system first follows the forcing frequency. Subsequently, certain PCQDs oscillate independently and consecutively to produce complicated frequency and amplitude modulations.

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