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Long-Term Water Vapor Thermal Therapy Outcomes Across a Broad Range of Prostate Volumes.

INTRODUCTION: Water vapor thermal therapy (WVTT) is a minimally invasive therapy designed to treat lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Long-term outcomes with large (>80 cc) and small (<30 cc) prostate volumes (PVs) remain limited. We report 48-month outcomes for a multiethnic cohort of WVTT-treated men, stratified by PV.

METHODS: In this single-center retrospective study, patients were stratified by PV: < 30 cc, 30 to 80 cc, or > 80 cc. Outcome measures, including International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life, International Index of Erectile Function, medication usage, and adverse events, were analyzed at baseline and at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, 24-, 36-, and/or 48-month follow-up.

RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-two patients met inclusion; 35 (13.9%) had PVs < 30 cc, 196 (77.8%) had PVs 30 to 80 cc, and 21 (8.3%) had PVs > 80 cc. Most patients were Asian (33.7%) or non-Hispanic Black (29.4%). International Prostate Symptom Score and quality of life improved in all cohorts from baseline at all follow-ups (all P < .05), with no differences between cohorts. International Index of Erectile Function-Orgasmic Function and -Erectile Function domains improved in 30 to 80 cc patients at 48 months. Alpha blocker and/or 5-alpha reductase inhibitor usage decreased at all follow-ups in < 30 cc and 30 to 80 cc patients and remained durable to only 6 months for > 80 cc patients. No significant differences in adverse events or reoperation rates were observed between cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests WVTT to be efficacious, durable, and safe in managing lower urinary tract symptoms across PVs, although PV > 80 cc patients may require benign prostatic hyperplasia medication at long-term follow-up. Further research is desired to clarify WVTT's role regarding sexual function and in treating men with larger PVs.

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