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Postoperative follow-up of 221 patients with infective endocarditis from Gaoligong mountain area of Yunnan in China: a retrospective, single-center, observational cohort study.

BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in management, infective endocarditis (IE) is still associated with high mortality and morbidity. The outcome of patients with IE remains unclear in high-altitude areas of China. To characterize the epidemiological features and surgical outcomes, a retrospective analysis was conducted to 221 patients diagnosed with IE from a single center. In addition, to assess the prognosis of patients, a multivariate logistic regression model was performed to analyze the affecting risk factors.

METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data of 221 patients with IE who underwent surgical treatment at the Department of Cardiac Surgery of Yan'an Hospital Affiliated to Kunming Medical University from January 2013 to December 2019. The analysis evaluated patient demographics, pathogenic bacterial composition, echocardiography results, and surgical treatment outcomes. After a 1-year follow-up period, the mortality rate was statistically analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups based on their survival status: those who survived and those who did not. Relevant factors were compared between the two groups, and a multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk factors that affect the prognosis of patients with IE.

RESULTS: Out of the 221 patients diagnosed with IE, 164 were male and 57 were female, with an average age of 39.25±14.36 years. The most common underlying heart diseases were bicuspid aortic valve disease (24.9%), congenital heart disease (19.5%), rupture of aortic sinus aneurysm (5.0%) and rheumatic valvular disease (2.3%). The blood culture had a positive rate of 48.42% (107/221), with Streptococcus viridans (29.9%) and Streptococcus haematoides (13.1%) being the main specifically pathogenic bacteria identified. Transthoracic echocardiography produced positive results in 89.6% (198/221) of cases. The findings included vegetation formation (100%), valve perforation or tear (21.7%), and perivalvular abscess formation (5.6%). Out of the patients, 174 underwent elective surgery, 47 received emergency surgery, and 11 died within 1 year after surgery, resulting in a mortality rate of 5.0%. However, the death group had longer operation time, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time and higher EuroSCORE II compared to the non-death group (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis identified preoperative hematocrit decrease, prolonged operation time and CPB time, high New York Heart Association (NYHA) cardiac function grade, and liver diseases as risk factors for 1-year mortality in patients with IE (OR =1.003, 0.000, 1.006, 1.026, 1.624 and 4.746).

CONCLUSIONS: IE primarily affects young and middle-aged men with rheumatic heart valvular disease as the main underlying heart disease and Streptococcus viridans as the main pathogen. Surgical intervention significantly reduces early mortality in IE patients. To improve postoperative prognosis, clinicians should remain vigilant, especially in high-risk groups with preoperative hematocrit, prolonged operation time, and CPB time, high NYHA cardiac function grade, EuroSCORE II, and vegetation formation.

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