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Oxidative stress and its role in Fabry disease.

Fabry disease is a rare X-linked disease characterized by deficient expression and activity of alpha-galactosidase A with consequent lysosomal accumulation of glycosphingolipids, particularly globotriaosylceramide in various organs. Currently, enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human α-galactosidase is the cornerstone of the treatment of Fabry patients, although in the long term enzyme replacement therapy fails to halt disease progression, in particular in case of late diagnosis. This suggests that the adverse outcomes cannot be justified by the lysosomal accumulation of glycosphingolipids alone, and that additional therapies targeted at further pathophysiologic mechanisms might contribute to halting the progression of cardiac, cerebrovascular and kidney disease in Fabry patients. Recent evidence points toward the involvement of oxidative stress, oxidative stress signaling and inflammation in the pathophysiology of cardio cerebrovascular and kidney damage in Fabry patients. This review reports the current knowledge of the involvement of oxidative stress in Fabry disease, which clearly points toward the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of the medium to long-term cardio-cerebrovascular-kidney damage of Fabry patients and summarizes the antioxidant therapeutic approaches currently available in the literature. This important role played by oxidative stress suggests potential novel additional therapeutic interventions by either pharmacologic or nutritional measures, on top of enzyme replacement therapy, aimed at improving/halting the progression of cardio-cerebrovascular disease and nephropathy that occur in Fabry patients.

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