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Effect of vitamin E δ-tocotrienol and aspirin on Wnt signaling in human colon cancer stem cells and in adenoma development in APCmin/+ mice.

Carcinogenesis 2024 June 16
In this study, we evaluated the effects of vitamin E δ-tocotrienol (DT3) and aspirin on Wnt signaling in human colon cancer stem cells (CCSCs) and in the prevention of adenoma formation in APCmin/+ mice. We found that knockdown of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene led to subsequent activation of Wnt signaling in colon epithelial cells (NCM460-APCsiRNA) and induction of β-catenin and its downstream target proteins c-MYC, cyclin D1, and survivin. When aspirin and DT3 were combined, cell growth and survival were inhibited and apoptosis was induced in colon epithelial cells and in CCSCs. However, DT3 and/or aspirin had little or no effect on control normal colon epithelial cells (NCM460-NCsiRNA). The induction of apoptosis was directly related to activation of caspase 8 and cleavage of BID to truncated BID. In addition, DT3 and/or aspirin-induced apoptosis was associated with cleaved PARP, elevated levels of cytosolic cytochrome c and BAX, and depletion of anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in CCSCs. The combination of aspirin and DT3 inhibited the self-renewal capacity, Wnt/β-catenin receptor activity, and expression of β-catenin and its downstream targets c-MYC, cyclin D1 and survivin in CCSCs. We also found that treatment with DT3 alone or combined with aspirin significantly inhibited intestinal adenoma formation and Wnt/ β-catenin signaling and induced apoptosis, compared to vehicle, in APCmin/+ mice. Our study demonstrated a rationale for further investigation of the combination of DT3 and aspirin for colorectal cancer prevention and therapy.

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