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Updates in Chronic Kidney Disease.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects approximately 14% of adults in the United States and is present in at least 10% of the population worldwide. Blood glucose and blood pressure control are imperative to adequately manage CKD as they are the only primary prevention measures for the condition. Recent changes in CKD evaluation and medication therapies that modify disease progression and aid in managing complications such as anemia of CKD have emerged, including a newly approved mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist and hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, respectively. This focused update on CKD evaluation and management will review the most recent evidence and approved agents to support patients with CKD, including a review of glomerular filtration rate measurement methods such as CKD-EPI 2021 and utilization of cystatin C, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines, American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines, and primary literature supporting the use of newer agents in CKD. Checklists for managing blood pressure and blood glucose, CKD-mineral bone disorder, and anemia of CKD targeted for pharmacists are also provided. Additionally, a discussion of Centers for Medicare & Medicaid (CMS) coverage of agents approved for managing complications of CKD is included.

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