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Cell death shapes cancer immunity: spotlighting PANoptosis.

PANoptosis represents a novel type of programmed cell death (PCD) with distinctive features that incorporate elements of pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis. PANoptosis is governed by a newly discovered cytoplasmic multimeric protein complex known as the PANoptosome. Unlike each of these PCD types individually, PANoptosis is still in the early stages of research and warrants further exploration of its specific regulatory mechanisms and primary targets. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the conceptual framework and molecular components of PANoptosis. In addition, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and therapeutic applications of PANoptosis. By elucidating the complex crosstalk between pyroptosis, apoptosis and necroptosis and summarizing the functional consequences of PANoptosis with a special focus on the tumor immune microenvironment, this review aims to provide a theoretical basis for the potential application of PANoptosis in cancer therapy.

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