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Clinical diagnosis and treatment of 37 cases of gallbladder neuroendocrine carcinoma.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics, treatment approaches, and prognosis of gallbladder neuroendocrine carcinoma (GB-NEC).

METHODS: Retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data of 37 patients with GB-NEC admitted to Shanxi Cancer Hospital from January 2010 to June 2023. The study included an examination of their general information, treatment regimens, and overall prognosis.

RESULTS: Twelve cases, either due to distant metastasis or other reasons, did not undergo surgical treatment and received palliative chemotherapy (Group 1). Two cases underwent simple cholecystectomy (Group 2); four patients underwent palliative tumor resection surgery (Group 3), and nineteen patients underwent radical resection surgery (Group 4). Among the 37 GB-NEC patients, the average pre-surgery CA19-9 level was 113.29 ± 138.45 U/mL, and the median overall survival time was 19 months (range 7.89-30.11 months). Of these, 28 cases (75.7%) received systemic treatment, 25 cases (67.6%) underwent surgical intervention, and 16 cases (64.0%) received postoperative adjuvant treatment, including combined radiochemotherapy or chemotherapy alone. The median overall survival time was 4 months (0.61-7.40 months) for Group 1 (n = 12), 8 months for Group 2 (n = 2), 21 months (14.67-43.33 months) for Group 3 (n = 4), and 19 months (range 7.89-30.11 months) for Group 4 (n = 19). A significant difference in median overall survival time was observed between Group 1 and Group 4 (P = 0.004).

CONCLUSION: Surgery remains the primary treatment for GB-NEC, with radical resection potentially offering greater benefits to patient survival compared to other therapeutic options. Postoperative adjuvant therapy has the potential to extend patient survival, although the overall prognosis remains challenging.

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