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Effects of inpatient, residential, and day-patient treatment on obsessive-compulsive symptoms in persons with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

INTRODUCTION: Patients with severe or treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often need an extensive treatment which cannot be provided by outpatient care. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the effects and their moderators of inpatient, residential, or day-patient treatment on obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with OCD.

METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were systematically screened according to the PRISMA guidelines. Studies were selected if they were conducted in an inpatient, residential, or day-patient treatment setting, were using a number of pre-defined instruments for assessing OCD symptom severity, and had a sample size of at least 20 patients.

RESULTS: We identified 43 eligible studies in which inpatient, residential, or day-patient treatment was administered. The means and standard deviations at admission, discharge, and-if available-at follow-up were extracted. All treatment programs included cognitive-behavioral treatment with exposure and response prevention. Only one study reported to not have used psychopharmacological medication. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms decreased from admission to discharge with large effect sizes (g = -1.59, 95%CI [-1.76; -1.41]) and did not change from discharge to follow-up (g = 0.06, 95%CI [-0.09; 0.21]). Length of stay, age, sex, and region did not explain heterogeneity across the studies but instrument used did: effects were larger for clinician-rated interviews than for self-report measures.

CONCLUSIONS: Persons with OCD can achieve considerable symptom reductions when undertaking inpatient, residential, or day-patient treatment and effects are-on average-maintained after discharge.

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