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The role of fibroblast growth factor 23 in regulation of phosphate balance.

Phosphate is essential for numerous biological processes, and serum levels are tightly regulated to accomplish these functions. The regulation of serum phosphate in a narrow physiological range is a well-orchestrated process and involves the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, bone, kidneys, and several hormones, namely, parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 Vitamin D). Although primarily synthesized in the bone, FGF23, an endocrine FGF, acts on the kidney to regulate phosphate and Vitamin D homeostasis by causing phosphaturia and reduced levels of 1,25 Vitamin D. Recent studies have highlighted the complex regulation of FGF23 including transcriptional and post-translational modification and kidney-bone cross talk. Understanding FGF23 biology has led to the identification of novel therapeutic agents to treat diseases that disrupt phosphate metabolism secondary to FGF23. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of phosphate homeostasis, FGF23 biology, and the role of FGF23 in phosphate balance.

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