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A case of TAFRO syndrome after vaccination, successfully treated with cyclosporine.

BMC Nephrology 2024 June 14
BACKGROUND: TAFRO syndrome is a rare disorder that causes thrombocytopenia, generalized oedema, fever, organ enlargement, and renal impairment. Few reports have suggested an association with vaccines, and few cases have undergone renal biopsy. TAFRO syndrome is often severe and fatal, and its cause is unknown. We report a case of TAFRO syndrome that occurred after vaccination with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine.

CASE PRESENTATION: An 82-year-old woman received two doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine 3 weeks apart. Two weeks later, she was admitted to the hospital with oedema, accompanied with renal failure and thrombocytopenia. After close examination, she was diagnosed with TAFRO syndrome. She was treated with steroids, cyclosporine, and thrombopoietin receptor agonists. The patient was discharged after several months in remission.

CONCLUSIONS: Although an incident of TAFRO syndrome after COVID-19 vaccination has been previously reported, this is a rare case in which the patient went into remission and was discharged. A renal biopsy was also performed in this case, which was consistent with previous reports. The favorable treatment course for TAFRO syndrome provides valuable insights.

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