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Oral alkalinizing supplementation suppressed intrarenal reactive oxidative stress in mild-stage chronic kidney disease: a randomized cohort study.

BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of oral supplements with alkalinizing agents in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been limited to the severe stages. We investigated whether two types of supplements, sodium bicarbonate (SB) and potassium citrate/sodium citrate (PCSC), could maintain renal function in patients with mild-stage CKD.

METHODS: This was a single-center, open-labeled, randomized cohort trial. Study participants with CKD stages G2, G3a, and G3b were enrolled between March 2013 and January 2019 and randomly assigned by stratification according to age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and diabetes. They were followed up for 6 months (short-term study) for the primary endpoints and extended to 2 years (long-term study) for the secondary endpoints. Supplementary doses were adjusted to achieve an early morning urinary pH of 6.8-7.2. We observed renal dysfunction or new-onset cerebrovascular disease and evaluated urinary surrogate markers for renal injury.

RESULTS: Overall, 101 participants were registered and allocated to three groups: standard (n = 32), SB (n = 34), and PCSC (n = 35). Two patients in the standard group attained the primary endpoints (renal stones and overt proteinuria) but were not statistically significant. There was one patient in the standard reduced eGFR during the long-term study (p = 0.042 by ANOVA). SB increased proteinuria (p = 0.0139, baseline vs. 6 months), whereas PCSC significantly reduced proteinuria (p = 0.0061, baseline vs. 1 year, or p = 0.0186, vs. 2 years) and urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (p = 0.0481, baseline vs. 6 months).

CONCLUSION: This study is the first to report supplementation of PCSC reduced intrarenal oxidative stress in patients with mild-stage CKD.

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