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A systematic review of epigenetic interplay in kidney diseases: Crosstalk between long noncoding RNAs and methylation, acetylation of chromatin and histone.

The intricate crosstalk between long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and epigenetic modifications such as chromatin/histone methylation and acetylation offer new perspectives on the pathogenesis and treatment of kidney diseases. lncRNAs, a class of transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides with no protein-coding potential, are now recognized as key regulatory molecules influencing gene expression through diverse mechanisms. They modulate the epigenetic modifications by recruiting or blocking enzymes responsible for adding or removing methyl or acetyl groups, such as DNA, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and histone methylation and acetylation, subsequently altering chromatin structure and accessibility. In kidney diseases such as acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetic nephropathy (DN), glomerulonephritis (GN), and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), aberrant patterns of DNA/RNA/histone methylation and acetylation have been associated with disease onset and progression, revealing a complex interplay with lncRNA dynamics. Recent studies have highlighted how lncRNAs can impact renal pathology by affecting the expression and function of key genes involved in cell cycle control, fibrosis, and inflammatory responses. This review will separately address the roles of lncRNAs and epigenetic modifications in renal diseases, with a particular emphasis on elucidating the bidirectional regulatory effects and underlying mechanisms of lncRNAs in conjunction with DNA/RNA/histone methylation and acetylation, in addition to the potential exacerbating or renoprotective effects in renal pathologies. Understanding the reciprocal relationships between lncRNAs and epigenetic modifications will not only shed light on the molecular underpinnings of renal pathologies but also present new avenues for therapeutic interventions and biomarker development, advancing precision medicine in nephrology.

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