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Biomarkers in breast cancer 2024: an updated consensus statement by the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology and the Spanish Society of Pathology.

This revised consensus statement of the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) and the Spanish Society of Pathological Anatomy (SEAP) updates the recommendations for biomarkers use in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer that we first published in 2018. The expert group recommends determining in early breast cancer the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Ki-67, and Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2), as well as BReast CAncer (BRCA) genes in high-risk HER2-negative breast cancer, to assist prognosis and help in indicating the therapeutic options, including hormone therapy, chemotherapy, anti-HER2 therapy, and other targeted therapies. One of the four available genetic prognostic platforms (Oncotype DX® , MammaPrint® , Prosigna® , or EndoPredict® ) may be used in ER-positive patients with early breast cancer to establish a prognostic category and help decide with the patient whether adjuvant treatment may be limited to hormonal therapy. In second-line advanced breast cancer, in addition, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) and estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) should be tested in hormone-sensitive cases, BRCA gene mutations in HER2-negative cancers, and in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), programmed cell death-1 ligand (PD-L1). Newer biomarkers and technologies, including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) testing, serine/threonine kinase (AKT) pathway activation, and next-generation sequencing (NGS), are at this point investigational.

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