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Global and regional burden of vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia, 1969-2023: Comprehensive findings with critical analysis of the international pharmacovigilance database.

OBJECTIVE: The scarcity of studies on vaccine-induced thrombosis and thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) limits the comprehensive understanding of vaccine safety on a global scale. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess the global burden of vaccine-induced TTS, identify the vaccines most associated with it, and suggest clinical implications regarding vaccination.

METHODS: This study employed the World Health Organization international pharmacovigilance database, extracting records of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia from 1969 to 2023 (total reports, n > 130 million). Global reporting counts, reported odds ratios (ROR), and information components (IC) were calculated to identify the association between 19 vaccines and the occurrence of vaccine-induced TTS across 156 countries.

RESULTS: We identified 24 233 cases (male, n = 11 559 [47.7%]) of vaccine-induced TTS among 404 388 reports of all-cause TTS. There has been a significant increase in reports of vaccine-induced TTS events over time, with a noteworthy surge observed after 2020, attributed to cases of TTS associated with COVID-19 vaccines. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines were associated with most TTS reports (ROR [95% confidence interval], 2.87 [2.75-3.00]; IC [IC0.25 ], 1.51 [1.43]), followed by hepatitis B (HBV, 2.23 [2.07-2.39]; 1.15 [1.03]), rotavirus diarrhea (1.95 [1.78-2.13]; 0.81 [0.53]), encephalitis (1.80 [1.50-2.16]; 0.84 [0.53]), hepatitis A (1.67 [1.50-1.86]; 0.73 [0.55]), adenovirus Type 5 vector-based (Ad5-vectored) COVID-19 (1.64 [1.59-1.68]; 0.69 [0.64]), pneumococcal (1.57 [1.49-1.66]; 0.65 [0.56]), and typhoid vaccines (1.41 [1.12-1.78]; 0.49 [0.11]). Concerning age and sex-specific risks, reports of vaccine-induced TTS were more associated with females and younger age groups. The age group between 12 and 17 years exhibited significant sex disproportion. Most of these adverse events had a short time to onset (days; mean [SD], 4.99 [40.30]) and the fatality rate was 2.20%, the highest rate observed in the age group over 65 years (3.79%) and lowest in the age group between 0 and 11 years (0.31%).

CONCLUSION: A rise in vaccine-induced TTS reports, notably MMR, HBV, and rotavirus diarrhea vaccines, was particularly related to young females. Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccines showed comparable or lower association with TTS compared to other vaccines. Despite the rarity of these adverse events, vigilance is essential as rare complications can be fatal, especially in older groups. Further studies with validated reporting are imperative to improve the accuracy of assessing the vaccine-induced TTS for preventive interventions and early diagnosis.

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