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Investigating age and ethnicity as novel high-risk phenotypes in mucinous ovarian cancer: retrospective study in a multi-ethnic population.

OBJECTIVES: Primary mucinous ovarian carcinoma represents 3% of ovarian cancers and is typically diagnosed early, yielding favorable outcomes. This study aims to identify risk factors, focussing on the impact of age and ethnicity on survival from primary mucinous ovarian cancer.

METHODS: A retrospective observational study of patients treated at Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust and University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire. Patients included were women aged ≥16 years, with primary mucinous ovarian cancer confirmed by specialist gynecological histopathologist and tumor immunohistochemistry, including cytokeratin-7, cytokeratin-20, and CDX2. Statistical analyses were performed using R integrated development environment, with survival assessed by Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier plots.

RESULTS: A total of 163 patients were analyzed; median age at diagnosis was 58 years (range 16-92), 145 (89%) were International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I and 43 (26%) patients had infiltrative invasion. Women aged ≤45 years were more likely to have infiltrative invasion (RR=1.38, 95% CI 0.78 to 2.46), with increased risk of death associated with infiltrative invasion (HR=2.29, 95% CI 1.37 to 5.83). Compared with White counterparts, South Asian women were more likely to undergo fertility-sparing surgery (RR=3.52, 95% CI 1.48 to 8.32), and have infiltrative invasion (RR=1.25, 95% CI 0.60 to 2.58). South Asian women undergoing fertility-sparing surgery had worse prognosis than those undergoing traditional staging surgery (HR=2.20, 95% CI 0.39 to 13.14). In FIGO stage I disease, 59% South Asian and 37% White women received adjuvant chemotherapy (p=0.06). South Asian women exhibited a worse overall prognosis than White women (HR=2.07, 95% CI 0.86 to 4.36), particularly pronounced in those aged ≤45 years (HR=8.75, 95% CI 1.22 to 76.38).

CONCLUSION: This study identified young age as a risk factor for diagnosis of infiltrative invasion. Fertility-sparing surgery in South Asian women is a risk factor for poorer prognosis. South Asian women exhibit poorer overall survival than their White counterparts.

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