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Comprehensive Proteogenomic Profiling Reveals the Molecular Characteristics of Colorectal Cancer at Distinct Stages of Progression.

Cancer Research 2024 June 12
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common malignant tumor world-wide. Analysis of the changes that occur during CRC progression could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms driving CRC development and identify improved treatment strategies. Here, we performed an integrated multi-omics analysis of 435 trace-tumor-samples from 148 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, covering non-tumor (NT), intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN), infiltration (IFT), and advanced-stage CRC (A-CRC) phases. Proteogenomics analyses demonstrated that KRAS and BRAF mutations were mutually exclusive and elevated oxidation phosphorylation in the IEN phase. Chr17q loss and chr20q gain were also mutually exclusive, occurred predominantly in the IEN and IFT phases, respectively, and impacted the cell cycle. Mutation of TP53 was frequent in the A-CRC phase and associated with tumor microenvironment, including increased extracellular matrix rigidity and stromal infiltration. Analysis of the profiles of CRC based on CMS and CRIS classifications revealed the progression paths of each subtype and indicated that microsatellite instability was associated with specific subtype classifications. Additional comparison of molecular characteristics of CRC based on location showed that ANKRD22 amplification by chr10q23.31 gain enhanced glycolysis in the right-sided CRC. The AOM/DSS-induced CRC carcinogenesis mouse model in mice indicated that DDX5 deletion due to chr17q loss promoted CRC development, consistent with the findings from the patient samples. Collectively, this study provides an informative resource for understanding the driving events of different stages of CRC and identifying the potential therapeutic targets.

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