Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Systematic Review
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Prevalence and associated factors of depression in postmenopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Psychiatry 2024 June 11
BACKGROUND: Depression is a prevalent mental health problem in postmenopausal women. Given its significant impact on the quality of life and overall well-being of postmenopausal women, there is need for a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of the existing research globally. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the global prevalence of depression and potential associated factors in postmenopausal women.

METHODS: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases were systematically searched from inception to March 22, 2023. The meta-analysis used the random-effects model to calculate the prevalence of depression rates and associated factors. In addition, subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were performed. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots, Egger's test, and nonparametric trim-and-fill tests.

RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 50 studies that involved 385,092 postmenopausal women. The prevalence of depression in postmenopausal women was 28.00% (95% CI, 25.80-30.10). Among the factors relevant to depression among postmenopausal women, marital status (OR: 2.03, 95%CI: 1.33-3.11), history of mental illness (OR: 2.31, 95%CI: 1.50-3.57), chronic disease (OR: 3.13, 95%CI: 2.20-4.44), menstrual cycle (OR: 1.42, 95%CI: 1.17-1.72), abortion numbers (OR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.40-1.80), menopausal symptoms (OR: 2.10, 95%CI: 1.52-2.90), and hormone replacement therapy (OR: 1.76, 95%CI: 1.31-2.35) were risk factors, while physical activity (OR: 0.56, 95%CI: 0.53-0.59), number of breastfed infants (OR: 0.43, 95%CI: 0.19-0.97), menopause age (OR: 0.44, 95%CI: 0.37-0.51) were preventive factors.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the prevalence of postmenopausal depression is high, and some risk factors and protective factors associated with it have been identified. It is necessary to improve screening and management and optimize prevention and intervention strategies to reduce the harmful effects of postmenopausal depression.

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