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Vitamin D and vitamin B 12 profiles in children with primary nocturnal enuresis, an analytical cross-sectional study.

Annals of Medicine 2024 December
PURPOSE: To outline the prevalence of vitamin D and vitamin B12 deficiencies in enuretic children.

METHODS: An analytical descriptive study was conducted on enuretic children who were followed up at the outpatient clinic for nocturnal enuresis at the Children's Hospital, Cairo University. Sociodemographic and clinical data were recorded. The levels of vitamin D and vitamin B12 were assessed and correlated with the severity of enuresis.

RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-eight children were enrolled. Insufficiency of Vitamin D predominated ( n  = 139; 48.3%). Vitamin D deficiency was present in 31.3%, n  = 90 and it was normal in 20.5%, n  = 59). Vitamin B12 deficiency was observed in 25% of the studied children, n  = 72). The one-sample Wilcoxon signed-rank test was significant for both vitamins (P value =0.001). Vitamin D showed a stronger inverse correlation with the number of enuresis episodes per day than vitamin B12 (-0.680 vs. -0.219 respectively). A cut-off of 13.7 ng/ml for vitamin D was detected, below which the child was predicted to have failed dry nights. Using multivariate logistic regression, higher vitamin D levels and behavioural treatment coexistence were significant protective factors for the absence of dry nights.

CONCLUSION: Low levels of vitamin D and B12 were detected in children with primary nocturnal enuresis, which could be considered a burden on the clinical severity of enuresis.

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