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Factors associated with intentions to quit vaping and quit attempts among Adolescents: A structural equation modeling approach.

OBJECTIVES: Previous youth tobacco research has identified multiple factors relating to intentions to quit vaping and quit attempts among current e-cigarette users in adolescents. The pathways in the complex associations with vaping cessation behaviors remain unclear.

METHODS: Using data from the 2022 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) (grades 6-12), structural equation models (SEMs) are developed to examine the associations of social environment, vaping risk perceptions, e-cigarette marketing, vaping characteristics, and demographics with two outcome measures - intentions to quit vaping and past year quit attempts among current e-cigarette users.

RESULTS: The national sample of current e-cigarette users (n = 2,701) consisted of 52.7 % females, 47.0 % non-Hispanic Whites, 80.1 % high school students, and 56.2 % heterosexual individuals. Among them, 70.2 % reported intentions to quit vaping and 66.3 % reported past year quit attempts. The protective factor for quit intentions was vaping risk perceptions (p < 0.001). Risk factors included e-cigarette marketing (p = 0.04), dual use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products (p = 0.003), vaping due to feeling anxious or stressed (p = 0.01), vaping for nicotine buzz (p = 0.002), nicotine dependence (p = 0.02), identifying as Gay or Lesbian (p < 0.001), bisexual (p = 0.03), or Hispanic (p = 0.04). Similar associations were observed with quit attempts except that e-cigarette marketing, vaping due to feeling anxious or stressed, vaping dependence, and identifying as Hispanic were not significant. Besides, high vaping frequency (p < 0.001), grade level (p < 0.001) and not sure about sexual orientation (p = 0.01) were also negatively associated with quit attempts.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provided insights into factors influencing vaping cessation outcomes among adolescent current e-cigarette users. Developing tailored vaping cessation programs based on these findings could enhance quit success.

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