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Morphological and histopathological changes of maternal levetiracetam on the cerebellar cortex of the offspring of albino rat.

Levetiracetam (LEV) is being used by women with reproductive-age epilepsy at a significantly higher rate. The purpose of the study was to assess how levetiracetam treatment during pregnancy affected the offspring's weight and cerebellum. Forty pregnant rats were divided into two groups (I, II). Two smaller groups (A, B) were created from each group. The rats in group I were gavaged with approximately 1.5 mL/day of distilled water either continuously during pregnancy (for subgroup IA) or continuously during pregnancy and 14 days postpartum (for subgroup IB). The rats in group II were gavaged with about 1.5 mL/day of distilled water (containing 36 mg levetiracetam) either continuously during pregnancy (for subgroup IA) or continuously during pregnancy and 14 days postpartum (for subgroup IB). After the work was completed, the body weight of the pups in each group was recorded, and their cerebella were analyzed histologically and morphometrically. Following levetiracetam treatment, the offspring showed decreased body weight and their cerebella displayed delayed development and pathological alterations. These alterations manifested as, differences in the thicknesses of the layers of cerebellar cortex as compared to the control groups; additionally, their cells displayed cytoplasmic vacuolation, nuclear alterations, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum and lost mitochondrial cristae. Giving levetiracetam to pregnant and lactating female rats had a negative impact on the body weight and cerebella of the offspring. Levetiracetam should be given with caution during pregnancy and lactation.

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