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A Comprehensive Review on Deep Learning Techniques in Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis.

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a serious neurological illness that causes memory loss gradually by destroying brain cells. This deadly brain illness primarily strikes the elderly, impairing their cognitive and bodily abilities until brain shrinkage occurs. Modern techniques are required for an accurate diagnosis of AD. Machine learning has gained attraction in the medical field as a means of determining a person's risk of developing AD in its early stages. One of the most advanced soft computing neural network-based Deep Learning (DL) methodologies has garnered significant interest among researchers in automating early-stage AD diagnosis. Hence, a comprehensive review is necessary to gain insights into DL techniques for the advancement of more effective methods for diagnosing AD. This review explores multiple biomarkers associated with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and various DL methodologies, including Deep Neural Networks (DNN), Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), The k-nearest-neighbor (k-NN), Deep Boltzmann Machines (DBM), and Deep Belief Networks (DBN), which have been employed for automating the early diagnosis of AD. Moreover, the unique contributions of this review include the classification of ATN biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease (AD), systemic description of diverse DL algorithms for early AD assessment, along with a discussion of widely utilized online datasets such as ADNI, OASIS, etc. Additionally, this review provides perspectives on future trends derived from critical evaluation of each variant of DL techniques across different modalities, dataset sources, AUC values, and accuracies.

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