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Systematic review and meta-analysis of gut peptides expression during fasting and postprandial states in individuals with obesity.

Gut peptides play a role in signaling appetite control in the hypothalamus. Limited knowledge exists regarding the release of these peptides in individuals with obesity before and during external stimuli. We hypothesize that the expression of gut peptides is different in the fasting and postprandial states in the scenario of obesity. PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Science Direct electronic databases were searched. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager Software. Randomized controlled trials that measured gut peptides in both obese and lean subjects were included in the analysis. A total of 552 subjects with obesity were enrolled in 25 trials. The gut peptide profile did not show any significant difference between obese and lean subjects for glucagon-like peptide 1 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.21 to 0.38; P = .30), peptide YY (95% CI, -1.47 to 0.18; P = .13), and cholecystokinin (95% CI, -1.25 to 1.28; P = .98). Gut peptides are decreased by an increased high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet and by decreased chewing. There is no statistically significant difference in gut peptides between individuals with obesity and leanness in a fasting state. However, the release of gut peptides is affected in individuals with obesity following external stimuli, such as dietary interventions and chewing. Further studies are necessary to investigate the relationship between various stimuli and the release of gut peptides, as well as their impact on appetite regulation in subjects with obesity.

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