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Comparison of Ductal Stent Versus Surgical Shunt as Initial Intervention for Neonates with Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum.

Data comparing surgical systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) stent as the initial palliation procedure for patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PA-IVS) are limited. We sought to compare characteristics and outcomes in a multicenter cohort of patients with PA-IVS undergoing surgical shunts versus PDA stents. We retrospectively reviewed neonates with PA-IVS from 2009 to 2019 in 19 United States centers. Bivariate comparisons and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed to determine the relationship between initial palliation strategy and outcomes including major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE): stroke, mechanical circulatory support, cardiac arrest, or death. Included were 187 patients were included: 38 PDA stents and 149 surgical shunts. Baseline characteristics did not differ statistically between groups. Post-procedural MACE occurred in 4 patients (11%) with PDA stents versus 38 (26%) with surgical shunts, p = 0.079. Overall, the initial palliation strategy was not significantly associated with MACE (aOR:0.37; 95% CI,0.13-1.02). In patients with moderate-to-severe right ventricle hypoplasia, PDA stents were significantly associated with decreased odds of MACE (aOR:0.36; 95% CI,0.13-0.99). PDA stents were associated with lower vasoactive inotrope scores (median 0 versus 5, p < 0.001), greater likelihood to be extubated at the end of their procedure (37% versus 4%, p < 0.001), and shorter duration of mechanical ventilation (median 24 versus 96 h, p < 0.001). PDA stents were associated with significantly more unplanned reinterventions for hypoxemia compared to surgical shunts (42% vs. 20%, p = 0.009). In this multicenter study, neonates with PA-IVS who underwent PDA stenting received less vasoactive and ventilatory support postoperatively compared to those who had surgical shunts. Furthermore, patients with the most severe morphology had decreased odds of MACE.

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