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Medications and Acute Hemolysis in G6PD-Deficient Patients - A Real-World Study.

Many drug labels contain precautions of use in G6PD-deficient patients due to hemolytic concerns, but much of this is based on scarce clinical, epidemiological, or structural data. In this real-world study, we aimed to examine if the administration of presumably risky medications for G6PD-deficient patients was followed by hemolysis. The study is based on data from Clalit Health Services database that provides inclusive health care for more than half of the Israeli population (~ 4.7 million). Within the database, we identified all G6PD-deficient patients by G6PD <6 U/g Hb. Within the G6PD-deficient cohort, we identified all hospitalizations with a discharge diagnosis of hemolysis (January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2022), validated the cases, and identified the culprit event. For the rest of the G6PD-deficient patients with no-hemolysis, we recorded filled prescriptions of medications listed as presumably risky. We identified 31,962 G6PD-deficient patients. Within the cohort, there were 71 cases of major hemolysis requiring hospitalization (0.2% of the cohort), of whom 51 (71.8%) had been caused by ingestion of fava beans, six (8.5%) were associated with an infection, and three (4.2%) suggested to be associated with medications (nitrofurantoin, phenazopyridine, and a "pain killer"). Within the 31,875 patients with no major hemolysis, nitrofurantoin has been prescribed safely to 1,366 G6PD-deficient males and females; hundreds/thousands of G6PD-deficient patients had been prescribed safely ciprofloxacin, glibenclamide, ofloxacin, phenazopyridine, sulfamethoxazole/cotrimoxazole, sulfasalazine, hydroxychloroquine, glimepiride, mesalazine, and sulfacetamide. In this real-world study, we are showing that a list of medications, suspected previously as carrying risks for hemolysis in G6PD-deficient patients, have been prescribed safely to G6PD-deficient patients, providing reassurance to patients, prescribers, and regulators.

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