Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
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One-Year Effects of High-Intensity Statin on Bioactive Lipids: Findings From the JUPITER Trial.

BACKGROUND: Statin effects extend beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction, potentially modulating the metabolism of bioactive lipids (BALs), crucial for biological signaling and inflammation. These bioactive metabolites may serve as metabolic footprints, helping uncover underlying processes linked to pleiotropic effects of statins and yielding a better understanding of their cardioprotective properties. This study aimed to investigate the impact of high-intensity statin therapy versus placebo on plasma BALs in the JUPITER trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin; NCT00239681), a randomized primary prevention trial involving individuals with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <130 mg/dL and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥2 mg/L.

METHODS: Using a nontargeted mass spectrometry approach, over 11 000 lipid features were assayed from baseline and 1-year plasma samples from cardiovascular disease noncases from 2 nonoverlapping nested substudies: JUPITERdiscovery (n=589) and JUPITERvalidation (n=409). The effect of randomized allocation of rosuvastatin 20 mg versus placebo on BALs was examined by fitting a linear regression with delta values (∆=year 1-baseline) adjusted for age and baseline levels of each feature. Significant associations in discovery were analyzed in the validation cohort. Multiple comparisons were adjusted using 2-stage overall false discovery rate.

RESULTS: We identified 610 lipid features associated with statin randomization with significant replication (overall false discovery rate, <0.05), including 26 with annotations. Statin therapy significantly increased levels of 276 features, including BALs with anti-inflammatory activity and arterial vasodilation properties. Concurrently, 334 features were significantly lowered by statin therapy, including arachidonic acid and proinflammatory and proplatelet aggregation BALs. By contrast, statin therapy reduced an eicosapentaenoic acid-derived hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid metabolite, which may be related to impaired glucose metabolism. Additionally, we observed sex-related differences in 6 lipid metabolites and 6 unknown features.

CONCLUSIONS: Statin allocation was significantly associated with upregulation of BALs with anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet aggregation and antioxidant properties and downregulation of BALs with proinflammatory and proplatelet aggregation activity, supporting the pleiotropic effects of statins beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction.

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