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Alternatives to β-Lactams as Agents for the Management of Dentoalveolar Abscess.

Dentoalveolar abscesses are localized infections within the tooth or the surrounding alveolar bone, often resulting from untreated dental caries or dental trauma causing alveolar bone resorption or even loss. Serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess can often lead to significant morbidity and mortality. The acute dentoalveolar abscess is a polymicro-bial infection comprising strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci i.e., Prevotella fusobacterium species, and facultative anaerobes i.e., Streptococci viridians and Streptococcus anginosus. Moreover, inappropriately managed dental infections can progress to severe submandibular space infections with associated serious complications, such as sepsis and airway obstruction. An audit of the Hull Royal Infirmary between 1999 and 2004 showed an increase in the number of patients presenting to oral and maxillofacial surgery services with dental sepsis. Thus, the scientific com-munity is forced to focus on treatment strategies for the management of dentoalveolar abscess (DAA) and other related dental problems. The current treatment includes antibiotic therapy, including β-lactams and non-β- lactams drugs, but it leads to the development of resistant micro-organisms due to improper and wide usage. Furthermore, the currently used β-lactam therapeutics is non-specific and easily hydrolyzed by the β-lactamase enzymes. Thus, the research focused on the non-β-lactams that can be the potential pharmacophore and helpful in the management of DAA, as the appropriate use and choice of antibiotics in dentistry plays an important role in antibiotic stewardship. The newer target for the choice is NLRP inflammasome, which is the major chemical mediator involved in dental problems. This review focused on pathogenesis and current therapeutics for the treatment of dentoalveolar abscesses.

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