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No code machine learning: validating the approach on use-case for classifying clavicle fractures.

Clinical Imaging 2024 May 32
PURPOSE: We created an infrastructure for no code machine learning (NML) platform for non-programming physicians to create NML model. We tested the platform by creating an NML model for classifying radiographs for the presence and absence of clavicle fractures.

METHODS: Our IRB-approved retrospective study included 4135 clavicle radiographs from 2039 patients (mean age 52 ± 20 years, F:M 1022:1017) from 13 hospitals. Each patient had two-view clavicle radiographs with axial and anterior-posterior projections. The positive radiographs had either displaced or non-displaced clavicle fractures. We configured the NML platform to automatically retrieve the eligible exams using the series' unique identification from the hospital virtual network archive via web access to DICOM Objects. The platform trained a model until the validation loss plateaus. Once the testing was complete, the platform provided the receiver operating characteristics curve and confusion matrix for estimating sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy.

RESULTS: The NML platform successfully retrieved 3917 radiographs (3917/4135, 94.7 %) and parsed them for creating a ML classifier with 2151 radiographs in the training, 100 radiographs for validation, and 1666 radiographs in testing datasets (772 radiographs with clavicle fracture, 894 without clavicle fracture). The network identified clavicle fracture with 90 % sensitivity, 87 % specificity, and 88 % accuracy with AUC of 0.95 (confidence interval 0.94-0.96).

CONCLUSION: A NML platform can help physicians create and test machine learning models from multicenter imaging datasets such as the one in our study for classifying radiographs based on the presence of clavicle fracture.

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