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Associations of empirically derived dietary patterns and cognitive performance in older men: Results of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study.

Maturitas 2024 May 32
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine associations between empirically derived dietary pattern scores and cognition, as well as risk of cognitive decline, over an average of 4.6 (± 0.3) years in older men.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This analysis was conducted as part of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) prospective cohort study. Diet was assessed at Visit 1 (3/2000-4/2002) by food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns (Western and Prudent) were derived by factor analysis. The analytic cohort comprised 4231 community-dwelling American men who were aged 65 years or more. Cognitive function was assessed with the Modified Mini-Mental State exam (3MS) and the Trails B test at Visit 1 and at Visit 2 (3/2005-5/2006). Associations between dietary pattern score and cognition and risk of cognitive decline were estimated using mixed effects regression models. Model 1 was adjusted for age, clinic site and total energy intake (TEI). Model 2 was further adjusted for calcium and vitamin D supplement use, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking, diabetes and hypertension (Western diet group) and education, calcium and vitamin D supplement use, depression, BMI, physical activity, smoking and stroke (Prudent diet group).

RESULTS: Adherence to the Western dietary pattern was associated with higher 3MS scores and shorter Trails B test time at Visit 1 in Model 2. Adherence to the Prudent dietary pattern was associated with higher 3MS scores in Model 1 but not Model 2. There were no independent associations between dietary pattern scores and risk of cognitive decline 4.6 (± 0.3) years later at Visit 2.

CONCLUSION: The results do not support a robust protective effect of the Prudent dietary pattern on cognition in the MrOS cohort. Associations between the Western dietary pattern and better cognitive scores should be interpreted with caution. Further research is needed to understand the complex interactions between dietary patterns and cognition in older men.

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