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GluR2 can Drive Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Impairments Following Peripherally Repeated Lipopolysaccharide Exposures.

Neuroinflammation is being increasingly recognized as a vital factor in the development of various neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), an outer membrane component of gram-negative bacteria, can trigger innate immune responses, resulting in neuroinflammation and subsequent cognitive deficits. The expression of glutamate receptors (GluRs) on glial cells can induce glial activation. Therefore, we hypothesized that repeated LPS exposure can increase GluR levels, promoting microglial activation and ultimately affecting synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. In this study, C57/BL6 mice were repeatedly exposed to LPS to construct a neuroinflammation animal model. The levels of GluRs, inflammatory cytokines, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1, postsynaptic density protein 95, synaptophysin 38, NMDA receptor 2 A, and NMDA receptor 2B (GluN2B) were measured in the hippocampi. Furthermore, dendritic spine density in the CA1 hippocampal region was determined. Repeated LPS exposure induced cognitive impairments and microglial activation and increased GluR1 and GluR2 levels. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in GluN2B expression and dendritic spine density in the hippocampi. However, CFM-2, an α-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor antagonist, reversed these anomalies. Furthermore, minocycline, a microglial inhibitor, reversed these anomalies and downregulated GluR2 but not GluR1 expression. In summary, we demonstrated that GluR2 plays an essential role in microglia-induced neuroinflammation, resulting in synaptic plasticity and cognitive impairment induced by repeated exposure to LPS.

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