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Myotonic dystrophy type 1 testing, 2024 revision: A technical standard of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG).

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a form of muscular dystrophy causing progressive muscle loss and weakness. Although clinical features can manifest at any age, it is the most common form of muscular dystrophy with onset in adulthood. DM1 is an autosomal dominant condition, resulting from an unstable CTG expansion in the 3'-untranslated region of the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) gene. The age of onset and the severity of the phenotype are roughly correlated with the size of the CTG expansion. Multiple methodologies can be used to diagnose affected individuals with DM1, including polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot, and triplet repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction. Recently, triplet repeat interruptions have been described, which may affect clinical outcomes of a fully-variable allele in DMPK. This document supersedes the Technical Standards and Guidelines for Myotonic Dystrophy originally published in 2009 and reaffirmed in 2015. It is designed for genetic testing professionals who are already familiar with the disease and the methods of analysis.

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