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Activation of TGR5 Increases Urine Concentration by Inducing AQP2 and AQP3 Expression in Renal Medullary Collecting Ducts.

Kidney Diseases 2024 June
INTRODUCTION: G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5), the first G protein-coupled receptor for bile acids identified, is capable of activating a variety of intracellular signaling pathways after interacting with bile acids. TGR5 plays an important role in multiple physiological processes and is considered to be a potential target for the treatment of various metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Evidence has emerged that genetic deletion of TGR5 results in an increase in basal urine output, suggesting that it may play a critical role in renal water and salt reabsorption. The present study aims to elucidate the effect and mechanism of TGR5 activation on urine concentration.

METHODS: Mice were treated with TGR5 agonists (LCA and INT-777) for 3 days. The 24-h urine of mice was collected and analyzed for urine biochemical parameters. The mRNA expressions were detected by real-time PCR, and the protein expressions were detected by western blot. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were performed to examine the cellular location of proteins. The cultured primary medullary collecting duct cells were pretreated with H89 (a PKA inhibitor) for 1 h, followed by 12-h treatment of LCA and INT-777. Luciferase reporter assays were used to detect the effect of CREB on the gene transcription of AQPs. Gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to analyze DNA-protein interactions.

RESULTS: Treatment of mice with the TGR5 agonist LCA and INT-777 markedly reduced urine output and increased urine osmolality, accompanied by a marked increase in AQP2 and AQP3 protein expression and membrane translocation. In cultured primary medullary collecting duct cells, LCA and INT-777 dose-dependently upregulated AQP2 and AQP3 expression in a cAMP/PKA-dependent manner. Mechanistically, both AQP2 and AQP3 gene promoter contains a putative CREB-binding site, which can be bound and activated by CREB as assessed by both gene promoter-driven luciferase and gel shift assays.

CONCLUSION: Collectively, our findings demonstrate that activation of TGR5 can promote urine concentration by upregulation of AQP2 and AQP3 expression in renal collecting ducts. TGR5 may represent an attractive target for the treatment of patients with urine concentration defect.

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