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Acute stress disorder and associated factors among adult trauma patients in Ethiopia: a multi-institutional study.

BMC Psychiatry 2024 June 5
INTRODUCTION: Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a mental disorder that happens after someone experienced traumatic event within duration of less than a month. Other studies conducted in different countries revealed that adults with a trauma had experienced acute stress disorder. This results in substantial distress and interferes with social and day to day activities. Despite the high burden of this problem, very little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for acute stress disorder in adults with traumatic injuries in Ethiopia.

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of acute stress disorder and associated factors among adult trauma patients attending in northwest Amhara Comprehensive Specialized Hospitals, Ethiopia 2022.

METHODS: An institutional based cross-sectional study design was employed among 422 adult trauma patients from May- June 2022. Systematic sampling technique was applied to recruit study participants. Data were collected through interviewer administered questionnaires using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, acute stress disorder measurement tools. Then, it was entered into Epi-Data version 4 and exported to STATA version 14 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regressions model were carried out to identify factors significantly associated acute stress disorder.

RESULT: The prevalence of acute stress disorder among adult trauma patients in northwest Amhara comprehensive specialized hospitals was found to be 44.15% (95% CI: 39.4%, 49.0%) with 99% of response rate. In multivariate logistic analysis younger age (21-29) (AOR = 0.33 95% CI: 0.14-0.77), (30-39) (AOR = 0.35 95% CI: 0.15-0.85), (40-49) (AOR = 0.28 95% CI: 0.10-0.76) respectively, presence of complication (AOR = 2.22 95% CI: 1.36-3.60), prolonged length of hospital stay (AOR = 1.89 95% CI: 1.21-2.95) and having low (AOR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.66-6.19) and moderate (AOR = 1.99, 95%, CI: 1.14-3.48) social support were factors significantly associated with acute stress disorder.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: This study showed that the prevalence of acute stress disorder among the adult study participants who experienced traumatic events was high as compared to other literatures. Age, complication, prolonged hospital stay and social support were factors significantly associated with ASD at p-value < 0.05. This indicates the need for early identification and interventions or ASD care services from health workers of psychiatric ward.

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