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PARP14 is regulated by the PARP9/DTX3L complex and promotes interferon γ-induced ADP-ribosylation.

EMBO Journal 2024 June 5
Protein ADP-ribosylation plays important but ill-defined roles in antiviral signalling cascades such as the interferon response. Several viruses of clinical interest, including coronaviruses, express hydrolases that reverse ADP-ribosylation catalysed by host enzymes, suggesting an important role for this modification in host-pathogen interactions. However, which ADP-ribosyltransferases mediate host ADP-ribosylation, what proteins and pathways they target and how these modifications affect viral infection and pathogenesis is currently unclear. Here we show that host ADP-ribosyltransferase activity induced by IFNγ signalling depends on PARP14 catalytic activity and that the PARP9/DTX3L complex is required to uphold PARP14 protein levels via post-translational mechanisms. Both the PARP9/DTX3L complex and PARP14 localise to IFNγ-induced cytoplasmic inclusions containing ADP-ribosylated proteins, and both PARP14 itself and DTX3L are likely targets of PARP14 ADP-ribosylation. We provide evidence that these modifications are hydrolysed by the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp3 macrodomain, shedding light on the intricate cross-regulation between IFN-induced ADP-ribosyltransferases and the potential roles of the coronavirus macrodomain in counteracting their activity.

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