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Raddeanin A Protects the BRB Through Inhibiting Inflammation and Apoptosis in the Retina of Alzheimer's Disease.

Neuroinflammation and endothelial cell apoptosis are prominent features of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, which have been described in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can predict cognitive decline. Recent reports revealed vascular β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits, Muller cell degeneration and microglial dysfunction in the retina of AD patients. However, there has been no in-depth research on the roles of inflammation, retinal endothelial cell apoptosis, and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) damage in AD retinopathy. We found that Raddeanin A (RDA) could improve pathological and cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by targeting β-amyloidosis, However, the effects of RDA on AD retinal function require further study. To clarify whether RDA inhibits inflammation and apoptosis and thus improves BRB function in AD-related retinopathy. In vitro we used Aβ-treated HRECs and MIO-M1 cells, and in vivo we used 3×Tg-AD mice to investigate the effect of RDA on BRB in AD-related retinopathy. We found that RDA could improve BRB function in AD-related retinopathy by inhibiting NLRP3-mediated inflammation and suppressing Wnt/β-catenin pathway-mediated apoptosis, which is expected to improve the pathological changes in AD-related retinopathy and the quality of life of AD patients.

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