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Comparison between cryotherapy and radiofrequency energy sources for parahisian accessory pathway percutaneous ablation.

BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation of parahisian accessory pathways (PHAP) are challenging due to their proximity to the normal conduction system. Retrospective studies suggest that cryoablation has a better safety profile but a higher recurrence rate when compared to radiofrequency ablation (RFCA). The objective of this study was to compare the results of parahisian AP ablation performed by electrophysiologists with experience in both technologies.

METHODS: Prospective single-center, non-blinded and 1:1 model was used. Patients included had parahisian AP confirmed by an electrophysiological study and referred for radiofrequency or cryotherapy ablation according to current guidelines, under fluoroscopic guidance. No electroanatomic mapping was used.

RESULTS: A total of 30 patients (mean age of 25±9.4 years; 90% male) were enrolled between Oct/2018 to Feb/2020. Acute success rate between RFCA and CRYO were similar (93% vs. 87%, p = 0.54). A nonsignificant reduction in short-term recurrence rate for RFCA (14% vs. 30%, p = 0.3) and mechanical trauma (6% vs. 20%; p = 0.28) was observed. Long-term recurrence rate and event-free survival time were similar in both groups after 1-year follow-up (p = 0.286). No persistent complete AV block or conduction disturbance was also observed.

CONCLUSION: Considering the limitation of a small sample size and the lack of use of electroanatomic mapping for RFCA, the efficacy and safety profile of parahisian AP ablation with RFCA was not different from CRYO, when performed by experienced electrophysiologists. No cases of permanent complete AV block were reported with either energy modalities.

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